An All-inclusive Dictionary To Become An Enthusiast of Technophilia

The software development world has its own vocabulary, which often makes non-IT-related people feel left out. If you ever get lost in the maze of jargon, fetch this software development glossary immediately! 

We have organized the software development-related terminologies, regularly used, in alphabetical order, and provided a brief definition for each. Thus, wait no more and get on a defining journey from technophobia to technophilia: 

(Source: GIPHY)

A

Abstract Syntax Tree: Also known as AST, it is a tree representation of the source code of a software program. It illustrates the structure of the source code. Each node in the tree symbolizes a construct occurring in the source code.

Acceptance Testing: A software testing to evaluate its compliance with the business requirements and determine if it is acceptable for delivery or not.  

Adaptive Design: A graphical user interface (GUI) design that adjusts to different fixed layout sizes. A system recognizes the browser size and selects the layout most suitable for the screen (e.g., a smartphone). 

Adaptive Maintenance: Updating and modifying the software when the platform on which software operates is changing; the clients want the software product to interface with new hardware or policies and culture is changing.

Agile Software Development: A software development methodology that focuses on the continuous delivery of products in incremental steps. 

Ajax: Stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. It utilizes the XMLHttpRequest object to communicate with the servers. It can send and receive information in different formats such as JSON, XML, HTML, and text files.

Algorithm: A set of rules and procedures or step-by-step descriptions of operations that are used to achieve deliverables. 

Alpha Testing: First level of testing, preceding beta. Developers or a dedicated team conducts it. This task is undertaken by the internal employees. 

Amdahl’s law: In software engineering, it is a formula used to determine how much latency can be extracted out of the execution of a task by introducing parallel computing. 

Amelioration pattern: It is a pattern generated when an edit is made in the software to better suit the current problem. It is transformational in nature. 

Android: It is a smartphone operating system designed from the modified version of the Linux kernel and other open-source software. 

Antipattern: A bad software design or ineffective pattern. It describes how NOT to solve a recurring problem in coding. 

App: Abbreviation for application. It is a computer program or software designed for a specific purpose that can be downloaded on smartphones and other related devices. 

App Development: It is a process of developing apps for any platform, i.e., Android and iOS. 

Application Integration: It is a process of merging and optimizing data and workflows between two distinct software applications such as Cloud and on-premises databases. 

Aspect-oriented Programming (AOP): It is a technique for breaking the code into different modules, known as modularization. 

Asynchronous Programming: It is a technique that allows the program to start a long-run task while also working on other events without waiting for that task to finish to be responsive to other tasks. 

Automated: A process of replacing manual tasks with technology to keep yourself updated with the trending software solutions.

Backbone. Js: A lightweight JavaScript library that structures and develops a smooth interface for client-side applications running on web browsers. It synchronizes various aspects of web applications (e.g. the server and clients). 

Back-end Also known as server-side, it is a part of the website you don’t see. Everything from storing and organizing data to ensuring everything works on the client-side is carried out on the back-end.

Backtracking: It is an algorithm used for building a solution via an incremental approach. The developers take one step at a time and remove the incremental solutions that don’t remove the constraints. 

Behavior-driven development (BDD): It is an Agile software development methodology in which the application is documented and encourages developers to design the software around the requested behaviors. 

Bespoke Software: It is a custom or tailored software that you can modify and adapt to the dynamic requirements of your business. 

Beta Testing: Following alpha, it is the second form of testing. Users outside the organization are invited to use the software, report bugs, or request new features. 

Bitbucket: It is a Git repository management solution, acting as a central source to encourage interaction among team members. It assists in managing git repositories, collaborating on source code and guiding the development flow. 

Blackbox Testing: It is a testing method used to test the software application without any internal structure of code or program. 

Bootstrap: It is an open-source front-end framework directed at developing websites and web apps. It features numerous HTML and CSS templates for UI interface factors such as buttons and forms. 

Bottom-up Design: Any design method in which the most primitive operations are first identified and combined into progressively larger units until the whole problem is solved. 

Boundary Testing: It is a value analysis used for finding errors at the boundaries of the input domain. 

Browser: It is an application program that allows users to assess the worldwide web (WWW). 

Bug: In software development, a bug is a problem that is causing the software to crash or produce invalid output. 

via GIPHY

Build: It is a process of converting source code into a standalone version of the software that runs on a computer or on the form itself. 

Build Tool: It is the program for automating the creation of executable software applications from the source code. 

Bytecode: It is a program code compiled from the source code into low-level code for a software interpreter. 

C#: It is an object-oriented programming language designed for Microsoft, based on the computing power of C++ and programming ease of Visual Basic. 

C++: It is a fast and object-oriented programming language which is ideal for developing operating systems, software, applications, browsers, Graphical User Interface (GUI) and games.

Cache: Pronounced as CASH. It is hardware or software used to store data temporarily so that the requests for that data can be delivered quickly. 

Capability Maturity Model (CMM): It is framework organizations use to analyze approaches and techniques to develop software products. 

Cloud Computing: It is the on-demand delivery of the computing services such as storage, databases, analysis, networking and intelligence. 

Cloud: It refers to the servers that are assessed over the internet. It allows the users to access the files and applications from almost any device. 

Cloud platform (AWS, GCP and Azure): Many cloud platforms such as AWS, GCP and Azure are based on cloud computing. They allow firms to build their in-house infrastructure. 

Cloud-based Development: It is a process through which cloud-based applications and software are built. 

Code refactoring: It is a process of changing the existing codes. It involves editing and cleaning up previously written codes without changing their function. 

Code smell: It is not a bug or an error. It is a violation of the fundamentals of developing software that reduces the quality of codes. 

Coding: It is a way of communicating with computers. In simple words, a developer writes a set of instructions, i.e., code. A code tells the computer what action to carry out. 

Command-line Interface (CLI): It is a computer interface where the input and output are in the form of text. 

Commercial Off-the-shelf Software (COTS): refers to hardware and software that already exist and are available from a commercial source. 

Compass: It is a developer’s portal that assists in accessing the unified real-time engineering output in one place. 

Compiler: It is a large software program that translates the source code written in a high-level language into a machine-language instruction set that hardware can understand. 

Computing: A process of using computer technology to achieve a goal-oriented task. It encompasses the design and development of software. 

Concatenation: In the context of programming, it is the process of joining two strings together. The application of concatenation is the process of merging data literals. 

Continuous integration and delivery (CI/CD): CI/CD is a coding principle and a set of practices that the development team uses to incorporate small coding changes and review them in the version control repository. 

Continuous Quality: It is a systematic process of finding and fixing software errors and defects during all the software development life cycle stages. 

Containers (Docker and Kubernetes): It virtualizes the host operating system and isolates the application’s dependencies from other containers running on the same machine. 

Corrective Maintenance: It is the process of repairing and restoring the failed or worn-out product to its working order. It is reactive in nature. 

Cross Browser Testing: It involves analyzing and comparing your website and web application front ends on different browser environments. 

CSS: It is a stylesheet language used to describe the presentation of the text in documents within HTML and XML language. 

Custom software development: It is a process of designing, planning, developing, implementing, deploying and maintaining software for a specific group of users or a particular company. 

Cybersecurity: It is the process of protecting and securing critical and sensitive information from cyberattacks. 

Cyclomatic complexity: It is a software metric used to determine the program's complexity. It is a quantitative measure of the number of linearly independent paths in the coding section. 

D

Database (DBMS): A database management system is the electronic collection and arrangement of data and information for rapid search and retrieval purposes in response to queries. 

Data Abstraction: It is a programming technique for separating interface and implementation. It provides only the requested information to the end-user without showing the details. 

Data Analysis: Evaluation of each data item's description and intended use in a software design for answering questions that are required for a better corporate decision-making process. 

Data Engineering: A practice of designing and developing software programs for collecting, storing and analyzing data at a scale. 

Data Modeling: It is a process of creating simplified diagrams of software programs and their data elements using symbols and text to represent text and how it flows. 

Data Science: It is an umbrella term for data analytics, machine learning and advanced algorithms. It deals with a vast amount of data using tools and techniques to produce unexpected patterns and meaningful information. 

Data Structures: A physical representation of logical relationships between data elements. It is designed to organize data on a computer and support certain data manipulation functions. 

Debugging: The process of determining an error's exact nature and location to fix it. 

Declarative Language: A programming language that specifies what the problem is rather than how to solve it. 

Dependency Graph: It represents the flow of information among various attributes in the form of a parse tree. 

Deployment: A process comprising activities through which a software program is delivered from developers to users. 

Design: The process of defining a software system's architecture, components, interfaces and other factors. It can be an architectural design, preliminary design or a detailed design. 

Design Pattern: A pattern that systematically names, motivates and explains a software design that recognizes the recurring design problem in an object-oriented system. 

Design Specification Document (DSD): A written report of a software product’s design and explaining its architecture. 

Developers: A person who develops, builds, documents or configures hardware or software of a computerized system. 

Development Environment: A workspace for developers to develop, test and debug software programs without altering the live environment. 

Development Process: A multi-step process that starts with idea generation and ends with implementation. 

Development Team: A group of personnel who develops and implements a product or service through collaboration and teamwork. 

DevOps: Short for Development Operations. A system of working that keeps development, IT operations and quality assurance departments on the same page to ensure collaboration. 

Documentation: Written reports are provided to understand the components' structures and intended functions. It can include flowcharts, user manuals, and textual reports. 

Domain Name: A human-readable name of an IP address. In simple words, it is the destination you type in the search engine such as www.google.com

Driver Development Kit (DDK): A set of programs and related files that assists in the development of a software or hardware driver or in updating an existing legacy system for the new version of operating system (OS). 

Dry Run: A pen and paper exercise for debugging an error. 

Django: A high-level python-based framework for rapid development and clean, pragmatic design. 

Dynamic analysis: A process of testing and analyzing a program while the software runs. It improves the quality of diagnosis and eliminates bugs, memory issues, and software crashes during execution. 

Dynamic programming: An optimization of programming language over plain recursion. For example, when you see a recurring call for the same input, you can optimize it using Dynamic Programming language. 

E

EAI (Enterprise Application Integration): A solution to the lack of communication between enterprise apps is EAI. It establishes a middleware framework that facilitates the information flow between apps with any database configurations or application modifications. Hence, it increases data availability. 

Ecommerce Software Development: A solution to the demand for an online store presence for businesses to check their inventory, add or remove products, process payments, compute taxes, and fulfill orders. 

Elegant Solution: A solution to a problem that maximizes satisfaction with minimal effort, steps and materials.

Embedded Systems Programming: A specialized programming within a larger computerized system that performs a specific function of the software. 

Express.Js: Simply known as Express. It is a back-end web framework that provides a robust set of features for web and mobile applications. It is a minimal and flexible Node.Js framework. 

Enterprise Software: A computer software designated to satisfy the needs of an organization rather than an individual needs. It is a multi-disciplinary approach that performs customer relationship management (CRM), Business Intelligence (BI), HR management and many more functions. Learn more about how to approach the enterprise software development process and unwind the complexities with InvoZone’s masterminds.

Entity-relationship Diagram: A data modeling technique that creates a graphical representation of components and the interaction and relationship between elements within the information system.  

Ergonomics: The science of refining the design of a product to optimize it for human use. 

Event-driven Language: A programming language that developers use to handle external events such as interruptions, mouse clicks etc. 

Exception Handling: A technique for incorporating fault tolerance measures in a software system. It prepares the software for handling unexpected events or errors that will occur in the future. 

Exception Testing: The process of testing the robustness of software by entering silly data such as contextual data instead of numeric data or excessive values etc.

Executable Code: Independent machine language that can run without translation. 

Exhaustive Testing: A complete testing process that analyzes every component of the software to ensure that the product will not be crushed or harmed in unfavorable circumstances. 

Explicit Declaration: The appearance of an identifier (a name) in the DECLARE statement as a label prefix or in a parameter list. Each variable is declared unambiguously to prevent errors from occurring in running programs. 

Exploratory Model: An experimental research-based methodology used for designing and developing software products and services. 

Extreme Programming: A software development methodology that aims to improve the quality of the software and make it responsive to the changing requirements of businesses. 

F

Feature Creep: Occurs when a new feature or changes (functions) are made to a software system, making it difficult or too complicated to use. 

Firms: A name or title under which a company transit business operations.

Firmware: A software that provides low-level control of a hardware device. It is the combination of a hardware device, like an IC, and computer data and instructions that are available as read-only software. 

Fit for Purpose: The finished product runs according to specifications and is robust and reliable. 

Framework: Pre-determined structures or solutions tailored to a particular application to speed up the development process systematically. 

Front End: The part of the software such as the website or mobile app that the end-user sees. 

Front End Web Development: The process of the development of the graphical user interface of a website through HTML, CSS and JavaScript. It allows the users to view and interact with that specific website. 

Full Stack: It refers to a complete set of software solutions and technologies that are utilized in the development of an application, website or platform. 

Full Stack Developer: Personnel who works both with the back end or server-side and front end or client-side of the application. They must have expert skills in a wide range of coding niches. 

Function: A block of code like instructions or procedures. The value is returned when a user uses that function.

Functional Programming: Abbreviated as FP. A process of using functions to create effective and maintainable software. 

Functional Specification: A formal document used to describe a product’s specifications and interactions with users in detail for software developers. It is a guideline that can be used as a reference while writing a programming code.  

Functional language: A language that is based on evaluating expressions rather than executing commands. It emphasizes the use of functions from which new functions are created

Fundamentals: A qualitative and quantitative overview of the project’s core functions and attributes. 

Gantt Chart: A horizontal bar chart used in project management for time scheduling that helps to plan, coordinate and track deliverables of a project. 

Gap Analysis: The study of differences between two different systems or applications to determine how to move from one state to another. 

General-purpose Language: The language that can be applied to program software for various situations

Genetic Programming: A programming model founded on the concept of biological evolution to handle a complex problem. It is ideal for situations with various fluctuating variables, such as those in artificial intelligence. 

Git: A software for tracking changes in a set of files. It allows programmers who are collectively developing the source code of the software to collaborate smoothly. 

GitHub: A code hosting platform that facilitates version control and collaboration. It allows developers to work remotely. 

Gold Code: The final form of software code before its commercial release. 

GUI: Stands for Graphical User Interface. It is an interface through which a user interacts with electronic devices such as smartphones and laptops through visual representation elements. 

HTML: Stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is the standard coding language in which most pages are written and made functional for web browsers. 

Help System: Also known as a help file. It is a software component used for documentation purposes for a software package. It describes each function, button, toolbar option and other elements within the user interface. 

Hotfix: Also known as a patch or quick-fix engineering, it is used by developers and engineers to fix a bug in the product. 

Human Factors: The study of how humans behave physically and psychologically in a particular environment and with a product or service. 

High-level language: A language that programmers easily understand. It consists of commands and instructions in the English language. 

Human-computer Interface: Interface that allows the application or software to interact with the outside world. It is a part of the program that users see. 

HTTP: Stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It is an application-layer protocol that transfers hypermedia documents such as HTML. 

I

IDE (Integrated Development Environment): A software used to build applications that combine all developer tools into a single graphical user interface (GUI). It consists of a coder, a compiler, a debugger and a GUI builder. 

Implementation: A software development life cycle (SDLC) stage in which the software application goes live. After the code is tested and approved, it is pushed into production to launch the software. 

Implicit Declaration: If a variable is not declared explicitly by a user, then it is given default attributes by Visual Basic Language. 

Incremental Development: A process in which each successive version of the product is built on a previous version by incorporating user-visible functionality. These are called vertical increments. 

Independent Test Group: A group of people other than developers who has a separate budget for testing to avoid author bias. 

Information Architecture: A set of ideas about how information can be treated philosophically and generally and how it should be organized. It is expressed in an information architecture document. 

Information Design: Detailed planning of information that is to be provided to a specific audience to meet specific objectives. It adopts information architecture and information planning stages in a hierarchical design. 

Inheritance: Sharing of characteristics from a class of objects to a newly created sub-class. It allows the developer to reuse the code while maintaining the same behavior. 

Integration Testing: A type of testing in which each component and module of software is tested as a single entity. 

Intermediate Code: A middle-level language code produced by a compiler, specifically for a target computer.

Internal Commentary: Using comments inside the source code to explain what it does. 

Internal Documentation: The practice of authoring and maintaining processes and procedures in detail for references by internal team members. 

Interpreter: A program aiming to translate and execute high-level programming language line by line without producing any independent object code. 

iOS Swift: A powerful and intuitive programming language for iOS, iPadOS, macOS, tvOS, and watchOS. 

ISV (Independent Software Vendor): A company that buys or sells software programs that run on one or more computing devices or operating systems. 

Iterative/Iteration: A heuristic planning and development process in which the software is developed in small sections called iterations. 

Iterative Development: An approach to decompose the development process of large and complex applications into smaller steps. 

ITIL: Stands for information technology infrastructure library. It is a set of standard practices that outlines the best practices for delivering IT services in an efficient way. 

J

Jackson Structured Programming: Developed in the 1970s, it is a structured and diagrammatic programming method that focuses on the existing input and output data streams. It is founded on the correspondence between the data streams and program structures.

 

Java: An object-oriented programming language that develops applications that can run in a virtual machine or a browser. The Java code must be compiled. 

JavaScript: An object-oriented scripting language that allows making the web interactive. The JavaScript code is in text and runs on a browser only. 

JavaScript Framework: The application framework is written in JavaScript, in which JavaScripters can manipulate the functions and use them for their convenience. 

Jira: A proprietary product developed by Atlassian, designed as a bug and issue tracker. 

Joint Application Development: The methodology of involving clients and end-users in designing and developing applications through successive workshops called JAD sessions. 

JQuery: A JavaScript library that simplifies HTML document traversal and manipulation, event handling, Ajax and animations with an easy-to-use API that can be run on multiple browsers. 

JSON (Javascript Object Notation): A lightweight JavaScript data interchangeable format. It makes it easier for coders to write and read while machines readily parse and generate. 

Junior Developer: An entry-level developer who assists the development team with designing and developing the application. 

K

Keywords: Ideas and concepts that define the content. In terms of SEO, these are the phrases users search in the search engine. 

KLOC (thousands of lines of code): A conventional measure for evaluating the size of a computer program. It determines the complexity of the project and the time required for the team to build the program. 

KPIs: Stands for Key Performance Indicators. KPIs are quantifiable measures of performance over a specific timespan and designated for specific objectives. It determines where the project stands. 

Languages: Also known as a programming language, it is used to express computer programs. There are different types of programming languages. The most popular are Java, C++, Python and Scala. 

Lean Programming: A process of optimizing efficiency and minimizing waste in the designing and developing of a software application. 

Legacy Application: An obsolete software program. Although they still work, they are unstable due to compatibility issues with current operating systems (OS). 

Lexical Analysis: The first phase of the compiler. It is also known as a scanner, designed to convert a high-level input program into a sequence of tokens by removing any whitespace or comments in the source code.  

Libraries: A collection of files, programs, routines, scripts and functions that developers can use as references in the programming code.

Life Cycle: A set of standard practices that are used to build a software program. The project is decomposed into stages with denoted activities such as planning, requirement analysis, design, development, testing and maintenance. 

Linear Search: A sequential searching algorithm that starts searching from the very start of the list and continues searching until the desired element is found. 

Linux: Just like Windows, iOS and Mac OS, Linux is an open-source operating system. It is software that sits underneath all other computer software, receives requests and relays them to the computer’s hardware. 

Local Environment: Developers can use their own devices/machines to build, run, test and redefine features of a website under development rather than using the ones provided by web hosting organizations. 

Low Code: Software development approach that requires little to no coding in the development process. 

Low Code Development Platform: Visual software development platforms that provide corporate developers and individual developers with an environment to drag and drop application components, integrate them and build websites or mobile applications. 

M

Machine Code: Also known as machine language, it is computer instructions and definitions written in binary language immediately recognized by the CPU. All source code, regardless of the programming language, is converted into machine code. 

Machine Learning: Artificial intelligence (AI) application that enables software programs to grow increasingly accurate at predicting events without being expressly designed to do so.

Macro: A preset sequence of computer instructions introduced into a program, generally during assembly or compilation, at each location where its equivalent macroinstruction exists.

Maintenance: Processes such as adjusting, cleaning, changing, and overhauling equipment ensure proper functioning. Correcting software mistakes, adapting software to a new context, and developing software innovations are examples of software maintenance.

Mean Stack: The MEAN stack is a framework for constructing web applications built on JavaScript. MEAN is named for the four major technologies that comprise the stack’s layers: MongoDB, Express, Angular, and Node.

Methodologies: In software engineering, a software development methodology is a structure that is used to organize, design, and supervise the process of constructing an information system.

Metric: A quantitative measure of the software quality to determine its usability, complexity, understanding, reliability, description and intricacy of code.

Microservices: Microservices, also known as microservice architecture, are an architectural style that builds an application as a series of services that are interconnected, highly testable and maintainable, coupled loosely; deployable on its own; centered on business capabilities and owned by a tiny group of people.

Minification: The practice of reducing the amount of code and markup in web pages and script files is known as minification. It is one of the most used strategies for reducing website load times and bandwidth utilization. It significantly enhances site performance and accessibility, resulting in a better user experience.

Mobile App Development: The methods and procedures involved in developing software for tiny, wireless computing devices such as smartphones and other handheld devices.

Mobile-first: A design concept that seeks to improve user experiences by starting the design process with mobile devices in mind, frequently preferring the tiniest of screens.

Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE): Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) is a codified technique that assists the requirements, design, analysis, verification and validation phases of complex system development. It places models at the heart of system design.

Modules: A self-contained subdivisions of a program that may be compiled individually in programming languages.

Module library: The module library contains code for standard algorithms that programmers may reuse.

MongoDB: An open-source NoSQL database management system. It manages document-oriented information and stores and retrieves data on request.  

MVC: Stands for Model View Controller. A component in software design that implements user interfaces, data and controlling logic. It distinguishes the software’s business logic and design. 

MVP: Stands for a minimum viable product. A version of the product with enough features to attract early adopters and builds validity of the product in the product development cycle. 

MySQL: An open-source relational database management system for websites with a huge amount of data to store, such as Facebook, Twitter or WordPress sites. 

N

Needs Identification: The first step in the product life cycle. In this step, the goal is to identify the need for improving the problem or solution. 

Networking: Also known as computer networking, it is a process of transferring and exchanging data between nodes over a shared medium. 

Node.Js: An open-source JavaScript runtime built on the JavaScript V8 engine. It is used for nonblocking and event-driven servers due to its single-threaded nature. Also, it supports conventional websites and back-end API servers. 

Normal Operation: The process of running a program under specific normal conditions. 

O

Object-oriented Design: A software development technique that focuses on systems and components expressed as objects, their operations and their connections. 

Object-oriented Language: A programming language like Java or C++ is used to express objects and messages between them. 

Object-oriented Programming (Oop): A programming language technology for writing programs. It consists of self-sufficient modules containing all the information required to manipulate a certain data structure. 

Object-Relational Database Management System (ORDBMS): A database management system. It is a middleman between a relational database (RDBMS) and an object-oriented database (OODBMS). It is used for object-oriented database models in the schemas and supports the query language. 

Open-Source Software Development: A free software product where the source code is publicly available, and developers have access to it readily. It is developed in a decentralized and collaborative manner. 

Optimized: Modifying a program or code to improve performance and efficiency. For example, make a software product using limited resources or making it run faster. 

Oracle: A relational database programming system using SQL programming language. Oracle Corp.’s registered trademark.

OS (Operating System): OS serves as an interface between the end-user and the computer hardware. The boot program loads this program into the computer and manages all software programs. 

Outsourcing: A business practice in which a company hires a third-party firm to perform tasks, handle operations and provide services for the company. 

Pair Programming: AN Agile software development technique based on Extreme Programming (XP). It allows two developers to work together on the same computer. 

Parameter Passing: A process through which data is passed to and from procedures and the main program. 

Parameter: A variable, constant or expression that is applied to pass data between software modules. 

Pasta Theory Of Programming: A common analogy for application development in which different programming structures are named after pasta dishes. It identifies the shortcomings in the coding, expressing them like spaghetti, lasagna and ravioli codes. 

Patch: An alteration made directly to the object program without recompiling or reassembling the source code. 

Peer Review: A method of evaluation of work by one or more people belonging to a similar field and with similar competencies as that of the author of the work. 

Perfective Maintenance: Software maintenance technique that aims to improve a computer program's performance, maintainability and attributes. It supports the new features that developers need to change the software's functionality according to the customer demand. 

Performance Testing: A software testing program to ensure the software performance in terms of reliability, sensitivity, reactivity and stability under a specific workload. 

Pert Chart (Program Evaluation Review Technique): Also known as the PERT diagram, it is a project management tool that is used to schedule, organize and coordinate tasks within a project. 

PHP: An acronym for PHP: Hypertext Processor. It is a general-purpose scripting language that allows developers to create dynamic content that interacts with databases. 

Plugin: Modules or software that can be added to a software application for additional features and functionality. 

Polymorphism: It is the core concept of object-oriented programming through which you can access different types of objects via the same interface. 

Portability: A branch of mathematics that analyzes the likelihood of an event to occur more logically and systematically. 

Portable: The flexibility of an application to run on different machine architectures with different operating systems. 

PostgreSQL: Free and open-source object-relational database management system that is used as a primary data warehouse for many websites, mobile, geospatial and analytical applications. 

Problem Specification: A document that specifies what needs to be solved while programming a solution to a problem. 

Problem-oriented: The concept stresses the identification of the problem and how it can be solved rather than the hardware on which the program runs. 

Procedural Language: Also known as imperative language, it is a programming language that follows a set of procedures in order. The programs follow a set of steps until they are terminated. Examples of procedural languages are JAVA, C, BASIC and PASCAL. 

Procedural Programming: The application of code in a stepwise pattern to develop an application. The program is decomposed into a set of sequential steps. 

Procedure: A block or component of code, when called through a program, will perform a designated action. 

Product Management: A business process that guides every step of the product life, i.e., from designing and developing to positioning and pricing. It prioritizes the product and its customers. 

Program Layer: An independent operating component of a software program that coordinates with the information according to a particular sequence of data manipulation tasks. It interacts with other program layers. 

Programming: A process of creating a set of instructions that informs a computer how to perform a task. 

Programming Language: See definition – Languages. 

Programming Software: A program or a set of programs that assists the software developers in developing, debugging and maintaining other programs. They are used to write codes. 

Project Planning: Also known as project designing, it is the first step of software project management. It is undertaken and completed before any development activity begins. It specifies the details of different attributes of the project, such as objectives, success metrics, cost, project size, scope, timeframe, and effort. 

Project-Based Learning: A student-centered pedagogy in software engineering in which the students learn through active exploration of real-world challenges and opportunities.

Prototyping: A process in which the design team generates ideas, conducts experiments and develops a draft version of the product to visualize the ideas and concept. 

Pseudocode: An informal way of programming that allows the developers to represent the program's implementation. 

Python: A high-level programming language that allows for building software, websites, automated tasks and conducting data analysis. 

Q

Quality Assurance: A planned and systematic technique of determining that a specific component, module or system adheres to the technical standards and requirements. 

R

Rapid Application Development (RAD): An alternate software development model that uses event-driven language for implementation. The developers prioritize prototyping and quick feedback by making multiple iterations. 

Rapid Prototyping: A structured software requirement discovering process in which developers ensure the fast fabrication of physical objects using 3-D computer-aided design (CAD) without manufacturing process planning, tools or fixtures. It enables early feedback and analysis. 

Rational Unified Process (RUP): An agile software development approach in which the project life cycle is divided into four stages. These stages include modeling, analysis and design, implementation and testing and application. 

React: An open-source front-end JavaScript library that enables developers to build UI components. 

React Native: A framework used for building native applications using JavaScript. It brings React’s declarative UI framework to iOS and Android. 

Reactive Programming: A design paradigm that utilizes asynchronous programming logic to handle real-time content. It is concerned with data streams and reacts when the value is omitted. 

Recursion: A programming language that solves a problem by creating a copy of itself and adopting an iterative approach. It solves the smaller subproblems of the original problem. It can also reduce the length of the code, making it easier to write and read. 

Refactoring: A process of improving the internal structure of a program’s source code without altering the external behavior. 

Reference Parameter: A reference to the memory location of a variable. It is the address of the original parameter, accessed by formal references. A new storage location is not created. 

Regression Testing: A software testing technique that ensures changes in the program’s source code that do not adversely affect its functionality. 

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Relational Database Management System (RDBMS): A software to store, manage, query and retrieve data from the relational database is called a relational database management system. It provides an interface between users, applications and databases, as well as administration functions. 

Repetition: A process which repeats itself infinite times until a certain condition is met. 

Requirement Analysis: Also known as requirement engineering, it is a process of identifying and analyzing user expectations for the new software being built or modified. 

Requirements Specification: A document explaining what measures or actions must be taken to meet certain user requirements. 

Resolution: It is the measure of the sharpness and quality of an image on the display monitors. It emphasizes the number of pixels contained on the display monitor. The number of pixels is labeled on the horizontal axis and the number on the vertical axis. 

Responsive Design: A graphic user interface (GUI) design approach that makes content fit for display on various screen sizes. 

Restful: Also known as RESTful API, it is an application programming language that adheres to the limitations of the REST architectural style. When a user makes a request via RESTful API, it delivers the representation of the resource state in one of the following formats: HTML, XLT, HTTP: JSON, Python, PHP or plain text.

Risk Management: A process that plans, strategizes, and mitigates the risks that can derail the progress of the project. 

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Roadmap: Also known as software roadmap, it is the high-level visual summary of the organization’s vision and objectives for the project. It is a strategic plan that focuses on the project's short-term and long-term solutions and initiatives. 

Ruby: An open-source and high-level programming language that is used to build desktop applications, web servers, data processing servers, static websites, and even automated tools. 

Ruby On Rails: Abbreviated as RoR, it is an open-source framework for web development in Ruby, an object-oriented programming language. 

Runtime: It describes the period of time during which a. program is running while the external instructions 

S

SaaS: Software as a service (or SaaS) is a method of providing software as a service through the Internet. Users can connect to and utilize cloud-based programs through the Internet using SaaS. Email, calendaring, and office tools are common examples (such as Microsoft Office 365).

Scripting Language: The scripting language is a programming language in which commands for a run time environment are written. They do not necessitate compilation and are instead interpreted.

SDK (Software Development Kit): A software development kit (SDK) is a collection of tools that enable developers to create new frameworks or utilize current frameworks to create apps for a certain platform. SDKs are frequently the foundation of many popular software, games, and apps.

Semantics: Semantic Technology characterizes and integrates data on the Web (or inside a business) by creating languages that convey complex, self-describing data interrelationships in a machine-processable format.

Service Pack: A service pack is a bundle of patches that provide updates and repairs for an operating system or software product. Many of these patches are frequently issued ahead of a bigger service pack, but the service pack allows for a simple, one-time installation.

An installed software pack tends to change Windows’ version number. It is the version number, not the popular name, such as Windows 11 or Windows Vista.

Services: Services strive to develop, engineer, maintain, and evolve diverse software kinds.

Shotgun Debugging: Shotgun debugging is the process of introducing undirected modifications into any software to be tested with the goal of disrupting flaws. It is an excellent example of a trial-and-error scenario that works well with few applications.

Simulation: The use of an executable model to express an object’s behavior. The traditional hardware, the external environment, and even code parts may be simulated during testing.

Sitemap: Outline of all pages on a website, grouped in hierarchical order – similar to the outlines you used in college for term papers.

Smoke Testing: A procedure for ensuring that the build obtained from the development team is testable. It is commonly referred to as a “Day 0” check and is performed at the “build level”.

Software Configuration Management: An approach for managing, organizing, and controlling changes in documents, codes, and other entities across the Software Development Life Cycle. The major objective is to maximize production while minimizing errors.

Software Design: A process for creating a plan, a structure for organizing your software application’s code.

Software Development Environment (SDE): An environment that automates or supplements the processes required in the software development cycle. It comprises both programming-in-the-many activities such as team and project management and programming-in-the-large activities such as configuration management.

Software Development Process: A process of translating user demands into software requirements, changing the software requirements into design, implementing the design in code, testing the code, and occasionally deploying and checking out the program for operational operations are all part of the process.

Software Rot: Refers to code rot, software entropy, bit rot, or software decay. It symbolizes the gradual deterioration of computer software performance. Such software is less responsive, lacks updates, and may become unreliable over time due to changes in the operating system it is running on, necessitating an upgrade.

Software Stack: It consists of all the software components required to support the execution of an application. The stack generally includes installable files, patches, software products, programming languages, coding frameworks, database tools, servers, user interface tools, and other software products. 

Software Testing: A process of evaluating and analyzing that a software product does what it is supposed to do. 

Solutions: A custom-built or configured software product to solve the client’s problems and satisfy user needs. 

Source Code: The human-readable representation of a collection of steps/procedures that instructs a machine to do a task. 

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Spaghetti Code: Without a cohesive framework, it is a program source code. Excessive usage of GOTO commands is implied.

Special Purpose Language: Specific task languages, such as prolog for artificial intelligence or C for creating operating systems.

Specification: A document that outlines the requirements, design, behavior, or other features of a system or component in a thorough, exact, and verifiable manner, as well as the methods for verifying whether these provisions have been met.

Spiral Model: A software development process model in which the component operations, requirements analysis, preliminary and detailed design, coding, integration, and testing are completed iteratively until the program is complete.

Sprint: A short, time-boxed period in which the development or scrum team must complete a set amount of deliverables. 

SQL: Stands for Structured Query Language. It refers to the domain-specific standardized programming language that manages the data stored in the relational databases. 

SSADM (Structured Systems Analysis & Design Method): An alternative to the waterfall model that manages only the analysis and design stages of the software development. 

SSL: Stands for Secure Socket Layers. It establishes secure internet connections between the server and clients to prevent cybercriminals from accessing and modifying sensitive personal information. 

Standard Algorithm: An algorithm that appears repetitively in a program. 

Static Analysis: Analysis of software that is conducted without running it.

Stepwise Refinement: A structured software design method in which data and processing procedures are stated generally at first, then in increasing detail.

Structure Charts: A diagram that demonstrates how bigger or more generic things break down into smaller, more detailed entries. It indicates modules, activities, or other entities in a system or computer program.

Structured Data: A standardized format for providing organized information and categorizing the webpage content. For instance, the information is divided into arrays in databases.  

Structured Listing: A program listing showing the involved modules along with complementary and purposeful variables. 

Structured Programming: Also known as modular programming. It divides the programming paradigm that divides an application program into a hierarchy of autonomous components or modules. It improves the clarity, quality and development time. 

Stub: Special code segments that, when activated by a code segment under test, replicate the behavior of yet-to-be-built modules that have been planned and defined.

Symbol Table: An important data structure devised and managed by compilers for storing information regarding the occurrence of different entities such as variables, functions, objects, interfaces etc. 

Synchronize-And-Stabilize: A life cycle model that facilitates development teams to work on individual application modules in parallel. It improves flexibility and establishes a balance in the process. 

Synchronous Learning: The type of learning in which learners and instructor(s) are in the same place and simultaneously for the learning to take place. For instance, live online meetings or in-person meetings. 

Synchronous Programming: A programming model where the operations take place in sequential order. 

Syntax: The rules that govern how symbols in a language are joined to make words, phrases, expressions, and other permitted creations.

System Software: A software that provides a platform for computer hardware and other software programs to operate. 

Systems Analyst: An IT professional who uses analysis and design techniques to determine that the systems, applications and infrastructures are operating efficiently and effectively.  

Systems Developer: Software developers who develop and implement applications and programs for the back-end processing systems to support the operations of the businesses. 

Systems Development Life Cycle Model: A project management framework that identifies and describes the stages used in systems development life cycles. 

Systems Development Method:  A standard process used in organizations to carry out all the activities necessary for analyzing, designing, implementing and maintaining information systems. 

Systems Specification: Also known as System Requirement Specification (SRS). It is a technical document that describes the software development framework, project overview, parameters, environment, hardware and other software requirements. 

Systems Thinking: A holistic theory to analyze systems and their constituent parts. It describes how sub-systems interrelate and work together over time within the context of larger and complex systems. 

3-Tier Application: Three-tier architecture is a well-known software application architecture that divides applications into three logical and physical computing tiers: the presentation tier, or user interface; the application tier, where data is processed; and the data tier, where the application’s data is stored and managed.

Taint Analysis: An approach to track the flow of sensitive information and detect vulnerabilities in the source code. 

TCO (Total Cost Of Ownership): The purchase prices of the asset in addition to its operational cost, representing the total cost through its life cycle. 

Technical Debt: Also known as tech debt or code debt. It refers to the event where the development prioritizes speedy delivery of a piece of functionality or project which eventually needs to be refactored. 

Technical Guide: Document created for people who will be using the system for accessing the information on how to install software and other system requirement details such as backing storage, processor and memory. 

Test Coverage: Metric in software testing that measures the number of tests covering elements such as test requirements, code, user scenarios, and platforms such as mobiles or browsers. 

Test Data: Type of data that is used to test whether software operates properly and determines its reliability and robustness. 

Test Log: A chronological record of how a program or application responds to various inputs. 

Test Plan: A strategy that specifies the scope, approach, resources, schedule, conditions and inputs for testing a program or application. 

Test-Driven Development (TDD): A software development practice that focuses on devising test cases before developing the actual code. It is an iterative approach that integrates programming, creation of unit tests and refactoring. 

Testers: An IT professional who tests the program or application for bugs, errors, defects and any other issues that the end-user might face while using the software. 

Testing: See Software Testing

Text Editor: A type of computer software that opens, creates and edits the plain text. 

Tool Kit: See Software Development Kit (SDK). 

Top-Down Design: A design methodology of decomposing a large and complex system into smaller and manageable iterations. It begins with the highest level of abstractions and continues to progressively lower levels toward specifications. 

Trace Facility: An approach for debugging a program by tracking the changes in the variable values while running the program. 

Traditional Model: An alternative name for the waterfall model. See Waterfall Model. 

Unicorn: A company valued by investors at more than 10 billion dollars.

Unified Modeling Language (UML): A standardized modeling language that consists of an integrated set of diagrams. It helps the systems and software developers to specify, visualize, construct and document the artifacts of software systems. 

Unit Testing: A software testing technique which tests each unit of software (modules, usage procedures and operating procedures) to determine if they are suitable for use or not. 

Unusual User Activity: The process of running the program with exceptional data. 

Usability Testing: The software testing approach in which representative users evaluate the usability of the software program or application. 

User Acceptance Testing (UAT): The type of testing in which the end-user or client verifies and accepts the software program or application before moving it into production. 

User Experience Design (UX): Focuses on the elements such as functionalities and features that shape a meaningful and relevant interaction between the end-users and everyday products and services such as websites and mobile apps. 

User Experience (UX) Designers: IT professionals who design user-friendly and accessible products, services and technology. 

User Interface: The point of human-computer interactions and communication in a device. It includes display screens, keyboards, desktop appearance and a mouse. In simple words, it is the way through which an end-user interacts with an application or website. 

User Interface Design (UI): A process the designer team utilizes to develop interfaces in software and computerized devices. It focuses on looks and styles. Learn more about foolproof UI/UX design services and kickstart your project with InvoZone’s commendable practices. 

Utility: Computer software designed to execute certain general support functions required by other application software, operating systems or system users. 

Value Parameter: In C++, it copies the actual value of an argument into the formal parameter in a function to be processed. The changes to the parameter in a function do not impact the argument. 

Version Control: Also known as source control. It is the practice of tracking and managing changes to the source code over time. 

Version Control System (VCS): Software tools that assist software teams in managing changes to the source code over time. 

Waterfall Methodology: Also known as the waterfall model and traditional model. It is a software development life cycle model that breaks the process into seven linear sequential phases. 

Web App: An application program that is stored in a remote server and delivered over the internet through a browser interface.  

Web Development: Tasks or work involved in developing a website for hosting via intranet or internet. Learn more about the web development process and get a seasoned team for your mission-critical projects. 

Web Framework: A software library that enables the developers to write a software code that runs on the web. 

Web Services: A set of open protocols and standards that allows client and server applications to exchange data. 

Whitebox Testing: See Structural Testing. 

Wireframe: A two-dimensional illustration of a webpage interface that solely focuses on space allocation, prioritization of content, functionality and intended behaviors. 

Write-Only Code: A code that is difficult to read and interpret. For this reason, it is understood by the code’s author. 

XCode: An integrated development environment (IDE) offered by Apple to create, compile and test Mac OSX and iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod) applications. 

XML: Stands for Extensible Markup Language. It is a markup language used to describe data, i.e., create formats and share electronic data. It is similar to HTML but without predefined tags to use. 

YAML: Stands for Yet Another Markup Language, or YAML ain’t markup language. It is a data serialization language that is human-readable and easy to interpret. It is usually utilized for writing configuration files. 

  

To All Technophobes!

Understand how modern trends are impacting user experiences without drowning in numbers!
Ready to Check Out The Blogs?

The software development world has its own vocabulary, which often makes non-IT-related people feel left out. If you ever get lost in the maze of jargon, fetch this software development glossary immediately! 

We have organized the software development-related terminologies, regularly used, in alphabetical order, and provided a brief definition for each. Thus, wait no more and get on a defining journey from technophobia to technophilia: 

(Source: GIPHY)

A

Abstract Syntax Tree: Also known as AST, it is a tree representation of the source code of a software program. It illustrates the structure of the source code. Each node in the tree symbolizes a construct occurring in the source code.

Acceptance Testing: A software testing to evaluate its compliance with the business requirements and determine if it is acceptable for delivery or not.  

Adaptive Design: A graphical user interface (GUI) design that adjusts to different fixed layout sizes. A system recognizes the browser size and selects the layout most suitable for the screen (e.g., a smartphone). 

Adaptive Maintenance: Updating and modifying the software when the platform on which software operates is changing; the clients want the software product to interface with new hardware or policies and culture is changing.

Agile Software Development: A software development methodology that focuses on the continuous delivery of products in incremental steps. 

Ajax: Stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. It utilizes the XMLHttpRequest object to communicate with the servers. It can send and receive information in different formats such as JSON, XML, HTML, and text files.

Algorithm: A set of rules and procedures or step-by-step descriptions of operations that are used to achieve deliverables. 

Alpha Testing: First level of testing, preceding beta. Developers or a dedicated team conducts it. This task is undertaken by the internal employees. 

Amdahl’s law: In software engineering, it is a formula used to determine how much latency can be extracted out of the execution of a task by introducing parallel computing. 

Amelioration pattern: It is a pattern generated when an edit is made in the software to better suit the current problem. It is transformational in nature. 

Android: It is a smartphone operating system designed from the modified version of the Linux kernel and other open-source software. 

Antipattern: A bad software design or ineffective pattern. It describes how NOT to solve a recurring problem in coding. 

App: Abbreviation for application. It is a computer program or software designed for a specific purpose that can be downloaded on smartphones and other related devices. 

App Development: It is a process of developing apps for any platform, i.e., Android and iOS. 

Application Integration: It is a process of merging and optimizing data and workflows between two distinct software applications such as Cloud and on-premises databases. 

Aspect-oriented Programming (AOP): It is a technique for breaking the code into different modules, known as modularization. 

Asynchronous Programming: It is a technique that allows the program to start a long-run task while also working on other events without waiting for that task to finish to be responsive to other tasks. 

Automated: A process of replacing manual tasks with technology to keep yourself updated with the trending software solutions.

Backbone. Js: A lightweight JavaScript library that structures and develops a smooth interface for client-side applications running on web browsers. It synchronizes various aspects of web applications (e.g. the server and clients). 

Back-end Also known as server-side, it is a part of the website you don’t see. Everything from storing and organizing data to ensuring everything works on the client-side is carried out on the back-end.

Backtracking: It is an algorithm used for building a solution via an incremental approach. The developers take one step at a time and remove the incremental solutions that don’t remove the constraints. 

Behavior-driven development (BDD): It is an Agile software development methodology in which the application is documented and encourages developers to design the software around the requested behaviors. 

Bespoke Software: It is a custom or tailored software that you can modify and adapt to the dynamic requirements of your business. 

Beta Testing: Following alpha, it is the second form of testing. Users outside the organization are invited to use the software, report bugs, or request new features. 

Bitbucket: It is a Git repository management solution, acting as a central source to encourage interaction among team members. It assists in managing git repositories, collaborating on source code and guiding the development flow. 

Blackbox Testing: It is a testing method used to test the software application without any internal structure of code or program. 

Bootstrap: It is an open-source front-end framework directed at developing websites and web apps. It features numerous HTML and CSS templates for UI interface factors such as buttons and forms. 

Bottom-up Design: Any design method in which the most primitive operations are first identified and combined into progressively larger units until the whole problem is solved. 

Boundary Testing: It is a value analysis used for finding errors at the boundaries of the input domain. 

Browser: It is an application program that allows users to assess the worldwide web (WWW). 

Bug: In software development, a bug is a problem that is causing the software to crash or produce invalid output. 

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Build: It is a process of converting source code into a standalone version of the software that runs on a computer or on the form itself. 

Build Tool: It is the program for automating the creation of executable software applications from the source code. 

Bytecode: It is a program code compiled from the source code into low-level code for a software interpreter. 

C#: It is an object-oriented programming language designed for Microsoft, based on the computing power of C++ and programming ease of Visual Basic. 

C++: It is a fast and object-oriented programming language which is ideal for developing operating systems, software, applications, browsers, Graphical User Interface (GUI) and games.

Cache: Pronounced as CASH. It is hardware or software used to store data temporarily so that the requests for that data can be delivered quickly. 

Capability Maturity Model (CMM): It is framework organizations use to analyze approaches and techniques to develop software products. 

Cloud Computing: It is the on-demand delivery of the computing services such as storage, databases, analysis, networking and intelligence. 

Cloud: It refers to the servers that are assessed over the internet. It allows the users to access the files and applications from almost any device. 

Cloud platform (AWS, GCP and Azure): Many cloud platforms such as AWS, GCP and Azure are based on cloud computing. They allow firms to build their in-house infrastructure. 

Cloud-based Development: It is a process through which cloud-based applications and software are built. 

Code refactoring: It is a process of changing the existing codes. It involves editing and cleaning up previously written codes without changing their function. 

Code smell: It is not a bug or an error. It is a violation of the fundamentals of developing software that reduces the quality of codes. 

Coding: It is a way of communicating with computers. In simple words, a developer writes a set of instructions, i.e., code. A code tells the computer what action to carry out. 

Command-line Interface (CLI): It is a computer interface where the input and output are in the form of text. 

Commercial Off-the-shelf Software (COTS): refers to hardware and software that already exist and are available from a commercial source. 

Compass: It is a developer’s portal that assists in accessing the unified real-time engineering output in one place. 

Compiler: It is a large software program that translates the source code written in a high-level language into a machine-language instruction set that hardware can understand. 

Computing: A process of using computer technology to achieve a goal-oriented task. It encompasses the design and development of software. 

Concatenation: In the context of programming, it is the process of joining two strings together. The application of concatenation is the process of merging data literals. 

Continuous integration and delivery (CI/CD): CI/CD is a coding principle and a set of practices that the development team uses to incorporate small coding changes and review them in the version control repository. 

Continuous Quality: It is a systematic process of finding and fixing software errors and defects during all the software development life cycle stages. 

Containers (Docker and Kubernetes): It virtualizes the host operating system and isolates the application’s dependencies from other containers running on the same machine. 

Corrective Maintenance: It is the process of repairing and restoring the failed or worn-out product to its working order. It is reactive in nature. 

Cross Browser Testing: It involves analyzing and comparing your website and web application front ends on different browser environments. 

CSS: It is a stylesheet language used to describe the presentation of the text in documents within HTML and XML language. 

Custom software development: It is a process of designing, planning, developing, implementing, deploying and maintaining software for a specific group of users or a particular company. 

Cybersecurity: It is the process of protecting and securing critical and sensitive information from cyberattacks. 

Cyclomatic complexity: It is a software metric used to determine the program's complexity. It is a quantitative measure of the number of linearly independent paths in the coding section. 

D

Database (DBMS): A database management system is the electronic collection and arrangement of data and information for rapid search and retrieval purposes in response to queries. 

Data Abstraction: It is a programming technique for separating interface and implementation. It provides only the requested information to the end-user without showing the details. 

Data Analysis: Evaluation of each data item's description and intended use in a software design for answering questions that are required for a better corporate decision-making process. 

Data Engineering: A practice of designing and developing software programs for collecting, storing and analyzing data at a scale. 

Data Modeling: It is a process of creating simplified diagrams of software programs and their data elements using symbols and text to represent text and how it flows. 

Data Science: It is an umbrella term for data analytics, machine learning and advanced algorithms. It deals with a vast amount of data using tools and techniques to produce unexpected patterns and meaningful information. 

Data Structures: A physical representation of logical relationships between data elements. It is designed to organize data on a computer and support certain data manipulation functions. 

Debugging: The process of determining an error's exact nature and location to fix it. 

Declarative Language: A programming language that specifies what the problem is rather than how to solve it. 

Dependency Graph: It represents the flow of information among various attributes in the form of a parse tree. 

Deployment: A process comprising activities through which a software program is delivered from developers to users. 

Design: The process of defining a software system's architecture, components, interfaces and other factors. It can be an architectural design, preliminary design or a detailed design. 

Design Pattern: A pattern that systematically names, motivates and explains a software design that recognizes the recurring design problem in an object-oriented system. 

Design Specification Document (DSD): A written report of a software product’s design and explaining its architecture. 

Developers: A person who develops, builds, documents or configures hardware or software of a computerized system. 

Development Environment: A workspace for developers to develop, test and debug software programs without altering the live environment. 

Development Process: A multi-step process that starts with idea generation and ends with implementation. 

Development Team: A group of personnel who develops and implements a product or service through collaboration and teamwork. 

DevOps: Short for Development Operations. A system of working that keeps development, IT operations and quality assurance departments on the same page to ensure collaboration. 

Documentation: Written reports are provided to understand the components' structures and intended functions. It can include flowcharts, user manuals, and textual reports. 

Domain Name: A human-readable name of an IP address. In simple words, it is the destination you type in the search engine such as www.google.com

Driver Development Kit (DDK): A set of programs and related files that assists in the development of a software or hardware driver or in updating an existing legacy system for the new version of operating system (OS). 

Dry Run: A pen and paper exercise for debugging an error. 

Django: A high-level python-based framework for rapid development and clean, pragmatic design. 

Dynamic analysis: A process of testing and analyzing a program while the software runs. It improves the quality of diagnosis and eliminates bugs, memory issues, and software crashes during execution. 

Dynamic programming: An optimization of programming language over plain recursion. For example, when you see a recurring call for the same input, you can optimize it using Dynamic Programming language. 

E

EAI (Enterprise Application Integration): A solution to the lack of communication between enterprise apps is EAI. It establishes a middleware framework that facilitates the information flow between apps with any database configurations or application modifications. Hence, it increases data availability. 

Ecommerce Software Development: A solution to the demand for an online store presence for businesses to check their inventory, add or remove products, process payments, compute taxes, and fulfill orders. 

Elegant Solution: A solution to a problem that maximizes satisfaction with minimal effort, steps and materials.

Embedded Systems Programming: A specialized programming within a larger computerized system that performs a specific function of the software. 

Express.Js: Simply known as Express. It is a back-end web framework that provides a robust set of features for web and mobile applications. It is a minimal and flexible Node.Js framework. 

Enterprise Software: A computer software designated to satisfy the needs of an organization rather than an individual needs. It is a multi-disciplinary approach that performs customer relationship management (CRM), Business Intelligence (BI), HR management and many more functions. Learn more about how to approach the enterprise software development process and unwind the complexities with InvoZone’s masterminds.

Entity-relationship Diagram: A data modeling technique that creates a graphical representation of components and the interaction and relationship between elements within the information system.  

Ergonomics: The science of refining the design of a product to optimize it for human use. 

Event-driven Language: A programming language that developers use to handle external events such as interruptions, mouse clicks etc. 

Exception Handling: A technique for incorporating fault tolerance measures in a software system. It prepares the software for handling unexpected events or errors that will occur in the future. 

Exception Testing: The process of testing the robustness of software by entering silly data such as contextual data instead of numeric data or excessive values etc.

Executable Code: Independent machine language that can run without translation. 

Exhaustive Testing: A complete testing process that analyzes every component of the software to ensure that the product will not be crushed or harmed in unfavorable circumstances. 

Explicit Declaration: The appearance of an identifier (a name) in the DECLARE statement as a label prefix or in a parameter list. Each variable is declared unambiguously to prevent errors from occurring in running programs. 

Exploratory Model: An experimental research-based methodology used for designing and developing software products and services. 

Extreme Programming: A software development methodology that aims to improve the quality of the software and make it responsive to the changing requirements of businesses. 

F

Feature Creep: Occurs when a new feature or changes (functions) are made to a software system, making it difficult or too complicated to use. 

Firms: A name or title under which a company transit business operations.

Firmware: A software that provides low-level control of a hardware device. It is the combination of a hardware device, like an IC, and computer data and instructions that are available as read-only software. 

Fit for Purpose: The finished product runs according to specifications and is robust and reliable. 

Framework: Pre-determined structures or solutions tailored to a particular application to speed up the development process systematically. 

Front End: The part of the software such as the website or mobile app that the end-user sees. 

Front End Web Development: The process of the development of the graphical user interface of a website through HTML, CSS and JavaScript. It allows the users to view and interact with that specific website. 

Full Stack: It refers to a complete set of software solutions and technologies that are utilized in the development of an application, website or platform. 

Full Stack Developer: Personnel who works both with the back end or server-side and front end or client-side of the application. They must have expert skills in a wide range of coding niches. 

Function: A block of code like instructions or procedures. The value is returned when a user uses that function.

Functional Programming: Abbreviated as FP. A process of using functions to create effective and maintainable software. 

Functional Specification: A formal document used to describe a product’s specifications and interactions with users in detail for software developers. It is a guideline that can be used as a reference while writing a programming code.  

Functional language: A language that is based on evaluating expressions rather than executing commands. It emphasizes the use of functions from which new functions are created

Fundamentals: A qualitative and quantitative overview of the project’s core functions and attributes. 

Gantt Chart: A horizontal bar chart used in project management for time scheduling that helps to plan, coordinate and track deliverables of a project. 

Gap Analysis: The study of differences between two different systems or applications to determine how to move from one state to another. 

General-purpose Language: The language that can be applied to program software for various situations

Genetic Programming: A programming model founded on the concept of biological evolution to handle a complex problem. It is ideal for situations with various fluctuating variables, such as those in artificial intelligence. 

Git: A software for tracking changes in a set of files. It allows programmers who are collectively developing the source code of the software to collaborate smoothly. 

GitHub: A code hosting platform that facilitates version control and collaboration. It allows developers to work remotely. 

Gold Code: The final form of software code before its commercial release. 

GUI: Stands for Graphical User Interface. It is an interface through which a user interacts with electronic devices such as smartphones and laptops through visual representation elements. 

HTML: Stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is the standard coding language in which most pages are written and made functional for web browsers. 

Help System: Also known as a help file. It is a software component used for documentation purposes for a software package. It describes each function, button, toolbar option and other elements within the user interface. 

Hotfix: Also known as a patch or quick-fix engineering, it is used by developers and engineers to fix a bug in the product. 

Human Factors: The study of how humans behave physically and psychologically in a particular environment and with a product or service. 

High-level language: A language that programmers easily understand. It consists of commands and instructions in the English language. 

Human-computer Interface: Interface that allows the application or software to interact with the outside world. It is a part of the program that users see. 

HTTP: Stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It is an application-layer protocol that transfers hypermedia documents such as HTML. 

I

IDE (Integrated Development Environment): A software used to build applications that combine all developer tools into a single graphical user interface (GUI). It consists of a coder, a compiler, a debugger and a GUI builder. 

Implementation: A software development life cycle (SDLC) stage in which the software application goes live. After the code is tested and approved, it is pushed into production to launch the software. 

Implicit Declaration: If a variable is not declared explicitly by a user, then it is given default attributes by Visual Basic Language. 

Incremental Development: A process in which each successive version of the product is built on a previous version by incorporating user-visible functionality. These are called vertical increments. 

Independent Test Group: A group of people other than developers who has a separate budget for testing to avoid author bias. 

Information Architecture: A set of ideas about how information can be treated philosophically and generally and how it should be organized. It is expressed in an information architecture document. 

Information Design: Detailed planning of information that is to be provided to a specific audience to meet specific objectives. It adopts information architecture and information planning stages in a hierarchical design. 

Inheritance: Sharing of characteristics from a class of objects to a newly created sub-class. It allows the developer to reuse the code while maintaining the same behavior. 

Integration Testing: A type of testing in which each component and module of software is tested as a single entity. 

Intermediate Code: A middle-level language code produced by a compiler, specifically for a target computer.

Internal Commentary: Using comments inside the source code to explain what it does. 

Internal Documentation: The practice of authoring and maintaining processes and procedures in detail for references by internal team members. 

Interpreter: A program aiming to translate and execute high-level programming language line by line without producing any independent object code. 

iOS Swift: A powerful and intuitive programming language for iOS, iPadOS, macOS, tvOS, and watchOS. 

ISV (Independent Software Vendor): A company that buys or sells software programs that run on one or more computing devices or operating systems. 

Iterative/Iteration: A heuristic planning and development process in which the software is developed in small sections called iterations. 

Iterative Development: An approach to decompose the development process of large and complex applications into smaller steps. 

ITIL: Stands for information technology infrastructure library. It is a set of standard practices that outlines the best practices for delivering IT services in an efficient way. 

J

Jackson Structured Programming: Developed in the 1970s, it is a structured and diagrammatic programming method that focuses on the existing input and output data streams. It is founded on the correspondence between the data streams and program structures.

 

Java: An object-oriented programming language that develops applications that can run in a virtual machine or a browser. The Java code must be compiled. 

JavaScript: An object-oriented scripting language that allows making the web interactive. The JavaScript code is in text and runs on a browser only. 

JavaScript Framework: The application framework is written in JavaScript, in which JavaScripters can manipulate the functions and use them for their convenience. 

Jira: A proprietary product developed by Atlassian, designed as a bug and issue tracker. 

Joint Application Development: The methodology of involving clients and end-users in designing and developing applications through successive workshops called JAD sessions. 

JQuery: A JavaScript library that simplifies HTML document traversal and manipulation, event handling, Ajax and animations with an easy-to-use API that can be run on multiple browsers. 

JSON (Javascript Object Notation): A lightweight JavaScript data interchangeable format. It makes it easier for coders to write and read while machines readily parse and generate. 

Junior Developer: An entry-level developer who assists the development team with designing and developing the application. 

K

Keywords: Ideas and concepts that define the content. In terms of SEO, these are the phrases users search in the search engine. 

KLOC (thousands of lines of code): A conventional measure for evaluating the size of a computer program. It determines the complexity of the project and the time required for the team to build the program. 

KPIs: Stands for Key Performance Indicators. KPIs are quantifiable measures of performance over a specific timespan and designated for specific objectives. It determines where the project stands. 

Languages: Also known as a programming language, it is used to express computer programs. There are different types of programming languages. The most popular are Java, C++, Python and Scala. 

Lean Programming: A process of optimizing efficiency and minimizing waste in the designing and developing of a software application. 

Legacy Application: An obsolete software program. Although they still work, they are unstable due to compatibility issues with current operating systems (OS). 

Lexical Analysis: The first phase of the compiler. It is also known as a scanner, designed to convert a high-level input program into a sequence of tokens by removing any whitespace or comments in the source code.  

Libraries: A collection of files, programs, routines, scripts and functions that developers can use as references in the programming code.

Life Cycle: A set of standard practices that are used to build a software program. The project is decomposed into stages with denoted activities such as planning, requirement analysis, design, development, testing and maintenance. 

Linear Search: A sequential searching algorithm that starts searching from the very start of the list and continues searching until the desired element is found. 

Linux: Just like Windows, iOS and Mac OS, Linux is an open-source operating system. It is software that sits underneath all other computer software, receives requests and relays them to the computer’s hardware. 

Local Environment: Developers can use their own devices/machines to build, run, test and redefine features of a website under development rather than using the ones provided by web hosting organizations. 

Low Code: Software development approach that requires little to no coding in the development process. 

Low Code Development Platform: Visual software development platforms that provide corporate developers and individual developers with an environment to drag and drop application components, integrate them and build websites or mobile applications. 

M

Machine Code: Also known as machine language, it is computer instructions and definitions written in binary language immediately recognized by the CPU. All source code, regardless of the programming language, is converted into machine code. 

Machine Learning: Artificial intelligence (AI) application that enables software programs to grow increasingly accurate at predicting events without being expressly designed to do so.

Macro: A preset sequence of computer instructions introduced into a program, generally during assembly or compilation, at each location where its equivalent macroinstruction exists.

Maintenance: Processes such as adjusting, cleaning, changing, and overhauling equipment ensure proper functioning. Correcting software mistakes, adapting software to a new context, and developing software innovations are examples of software maintenance.

Mean Stack: The MEAN stack is a framework for constructing web applications built on JavaScript. MEAN is named for the four major technologies that comprise the stack’s layers: MongoDB, Express, Angular, and Node.

Methodologies: In software engineering, a software development methodology is a structure that is used to organize, design, and supervise the process of constructing an information system.

Metric: A quantitative measure of the software quality to determine its usability, complexity, understanding, reliability, description and intricacy of code.

Microservices: Microservices, also known as microservice architecture, are an architectural style that builds an application as a series of services that are interconnected, highly testable and maintainable, coupled loosely; deployable on its own; centered on business capabilities and owned by a tiny group of people.

Minification: The practice of reducing the amount of code and markup in web pages and script files is known as minification. It is one of the most used strategies for reducing website load times and bandwidth utilization. It significantly enhances site performance and accessibility, resulting in a better user experience.

Mobile App Development: The methods and procedures involved in developing software for tiny, wireless computing devices such as smartphones and other handheld devices.

Mobile-first: A design concept that seeks to improve user experiences by starting the design process with mobile devices in mind, frequently preferring the tiniest of screens.

Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE): Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) is a codified technique that assists the requirements, design, analysis, verification and validation phases of complex system development. It places models at the heart of system design.

Modules: A self-contained subdivisions of a program that may be compiled individually in programming languages.

Module library: The module library contains code for standard algorithms that programmers may reuse.

MongoDB: An open-source NoSQL database management system. It manages document-oriented information and stores and retrieves data on request.  

MVC: Stands for Model View Controller. A component in software design that implements user interfaces, data and controlling logic. It distinguishes the software’s business logic and design. 

MVP: Stands for a minimum viable product. A version of the product with enough features to attract early adopters and builds validity of the product in the product development cycle. 

MySQL: An open-source relational database management system for websites with a huge amount of data to store, such as Facebook, Twitter or WordPress sites. 

N

Needs Identification: The first step in the product life cycle. In this step, the goal is to identify the need for improving the problem or solution. 

Networking: Also known as computer networking, it is a process of transferring and exchanging data between nodes over a shared medium. 

Node.Js: An open-source JavaScript runtime built on the JavaScript V8 engine. It is used for nonblocking and event-driven servers due to its single-threaded nature. Also, it supports conventional websites and back-end API servers. 

Normal Operation: The process of running a program under specific normal conditions. 

O

Object-oriented Design: A software development technique that focuses on systems and components expressed as objects, their operations and their connections. 

Object-oriented Language: A programming language like Java or C++ is used to express objects and messages between them. 

Object-oriented Programming (Oop): A programming language technology for writing programs. It consists of self-sufficient modules containing all the information required to manipulate a certain data structure. 

Object-Relational Database Management System (ORDBMS): A database management system. It is a middleman between a relational database (RDBMS) and an object-oriented database (OODBMS). It is used for object-oriented database models in the schemas and supports the query language. 

Open-Source Software Development: A free software product where the source code is publicly available, and developers have access to it readily. It is developed in a decentralized and collaborative manner. 

Optimized: Modifying a program or code to improve performance and efficiency. For example, make a software product using limited resources or making it run faster. 

Oracle: A relational database programming system using SQL programming language. Oracle Corp.’s registered trademark.

OS (Operating System): OS serves as an interface between the end-user and the computer hardware. The boot program loads this program into the computer and manages all software programs. 

Outsourcing: A business practice in which a company hires a third-party firm to perform tasks, handle operations and provide services for the company. 

Pair Programming: AN Agile software development technique based on Extreme Programming (XP). It allows two developers to work together on the same computer. 

Parameter Passing: A process through which data is passed to and from procedures and the main program. 

Parameter: A variable, constant or expression that is applied to pass data between software modules. 

Pasta Theory Of Programming: A common analogy for application development in which different programming structures are named after pasta dishes. It identifies the shortcomings in the coding, expressing them like spaghetti, lasagna and ravioli codes. 

Patch: An alteration made directly to the object program without recompiling or reassembling the source code. 

Peer Review: A method of evaluation of work by one or more people belonging to a similar field and with similar competencies as that of the author of the work. 

Perfective Maintenance: Software maintenance technique that aims to improve a computer program's performance, maintainability and attributes. It supports the new features that developers need to change the software's functionality according to the customer demand. 

Performance Testing: A software testing program to ensure the software performance in terms of reliability, sensitivity, reactivity and stability under a specific workload. 

Pert Chart (Program Evaluation Review Technique): Also known as the PERT diagram, it is a project management tool that is used to schedule, organize and coordinate tasks within a project. 

PHP: An acronym for PHP: Hypertext Processor. It is a general-purpose scripting language that allows developers to create dynamic content that interacts with databases. 

Plugin: Modules or software that can be added to a software application for additional features and functionality. 

Polymorphism: It is the core concept of object-oriented programming through which you can access different types of objects via the same interface. 

Portability: A branch of mathematics that analyzes the likelihood of an event to occur more logically and systematically. 

Portable: The flexibility of an application to run on different machine architectures with different operating systems. 

PostgreSQL: Free and open-source object-relational database management system that is used as a primary data warehouse for many websites, mobile, geospatial and analytical applications. 

Problem Specification: A document that specifies what needs to be solved while programming a solution to a problem. 

Problem-oriented: The concept stresses the identification of the problem and how it can be solved rather than the hardware on which the program runs. 

Procedural Language: Also known as imperative language, it is a programming language that follows a set of procedures in order. The programs follow a set of steps until they are terminated. Examples of procedural languages are JAVA, C, BASIC and PASCAL. 

Procedural Programming: The application of code in a stepwise pattern to develop an application. The program is decomposed into a set of sequential steps. 

Procedure: A block or component of code, when called through a program, will perform a designated action. 

Product Management: A business process that guides every step of the product life, i.e., from designing and developing to positioning and pricing. It prioritizes the product and its customers. 

Program Layer: An independent operating component of a software program that coordinates with the information according to a particular sequence of data manipulation tasks. It interacts with other program layers. 

Programming: A process of creating a set of instructions that informs a computer how to perform a task. 

Programming Language: See definition – Languages. 

Programming Software: A program or a set of programs that assists the software developers in developing, debugging and maintaining other programs. They are used to write codes. 

Project Planning: Also known as project designing, it is the first step of software project management. It is undertaken and completed before any development activity begins. It specifies the details of different attributes of the project, such as objectives, success metrics, cost, project size, scope, timeframe, and effort. 

Project-Based Learning: A student-centered pedagogy in software engineering in which the students learn through active exploration of real-world challenges and opportunities.

Prototyping: A process in which the design team generates ideas, conducts experiments and develops a draft version of the product to visualize the ideas and concept. 

Pseudocode: An informal way of programming that allows the developers to represent the program's implementation. 

Python: A high-level programming language that allows for building software, websites, automated tasks and conducting data analysis. 

Q

Quality Assurance: A planned and systematic technique of determining that a specific component, module or system adheres to the technical standards and requirements. 

R

Rapid Application Development (RAD): An alternate software development model that uses event-driven language for implementation. The developers prioritize prototyping and quick feedback by making multiple iterations. 

Rapid Prototyping: A structured software requirement discovering process in which developers ensure the fast fabrication of physical objects using 3-D computer-aided design (CAD) without manufacturing process planning, tools or fixtures. It enables early feedback and analysis. 

Rational Unified Process (RUP): An agile software development approach in which the project life cycle is divided into four stages. These stages include modeling, analysis and design, implementation and testing and application. 

React: An open-source front-end JavaScript library that enables developers to build UI components. 

React Native: A framework used for building native applications using JavaScript. It brings React’s declarative UI framework to iOS and Android. 

Reactive Programming: A design paradigm that utilizes asynchronous programming logic to handle real-time content. It is concerned with data streams and reacts when the value is omitted. 

Recursion: A programming language that solves a problem by creating a copy of itself and adopting an iterative approach. It solves the smaller subproblems of the original problem. It can also reduce the length of the code, making it easier to write and read. 

Refactoring: A process of improving the internal structure of a program’s source code without altering the external behavior. 

Reference Parameter: A reference to the memory location of a variable. It is the address of the original parameter, accessed by formal references. A new storage location is not created. 

Regression Testing: A software testing technique that ensures changes in the program’s source code that do not adversely affect its functionality. 

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Relational Database Management System (RDBMS): A software to store, manage, query and retrieve data from the relational database is called a relational database management system. It provides an interface between users, applications and databases, as well as administration functions. 

Repetition: A process which repeats itself infinite times until a certain condition is met. 

Requirement Analysis: Also known as requirement engineering, it is a process of identifying and analyzing user expectations for the new software being built or modified. 

Requirements Specification: A document explaining what measures or actions must be taken to meet certain user requirements. 

Resolution: It is the measure of the sharpness and quality of an image on the display monitors. It emphasizes the number of pixels contained on the display monitor. The number of pixels is labeled on the horizontal axis and the number on the vertical axis. 

Responsive Design: A graphic user interface (GUI) design approach that makes content fit for display on various screen sizes. 

Restful: Also known as RESTful API, it is an application programming language that adheres to the limitations of the REST architectural style. When a user makes a request via RESTful API, it delivers the representation of the resource state in one of the following formats: HTML, XLT, HTTP: JSON, Python, PHP or plain text.

Risk Management: A process that plans, strategizes, and mitigates the risks that can derail the progress of the project. 

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Roadmap: Also known as software roadmap, it is the high-level visual summary of the organization’s vision and objectives for the project. It is a strategic plan that focuses on the project's short-term and long-term solutions and initiatives. 

Ruby: An open-source and high-level programming language that is used to build desktop applications, web servers, data processing servers, static websites, and even automated tools. 

Ruby On Rails: Abbreviated as RoR, it is an open-source framework for web development in Ruby, an object-oriented programming language. 

Runtime: It describes the period of time during which a. program is running while the external instructions 

S

SaaS: Software as a service (or SaaS) is a method of providing software as a service through the Internet. Users can connect to and utilize cloud-based programs through the Internet using SaaS. Email, calendaring, and office tools are common examples (such as Microsoft Office 365).

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